General instructions: You will have an hour and 15 minutes (75 min.) to complete this exam. Once you have started the clock with start. In other words, it will not save for you. I am expecting that you have spent the normal time preparing for this exam as you would have for an in-class exam.
Multiple choice: You should not treat this as an open book exam as looking up the answers will leave you without enough time to complete it.
Essays: While I am expecting that you have prepared the exam essays ahead of time, you should NOT be quoting from articles. I want to see that you can paraphrase and discuss the research just like you would if this was an in-class exam. This is important. Because you have time to prepare them and will have your notes, they should be well-written and thoughtful. In other words, you can just cut and paste your answers in to the response box. Assume one page hand written is enough to answer each question, or 2-3 paragraphs typed (but no more than 3, and if you can answer it fully in 1 paragraph that is okay too).
Answer the question in a concise manner and make sure you answer all parts of the question. You should clearly be using the articles and research in the articles to answer these questions. In other words, when a question asks you to give examples from research, then you should discuss main methods/findings from that research (i.e., the research cited in the question) to back-up your points. Make sure you clearly answer all parts of the question.
Note: You do not need to include a reference for each article, but do use APA in-text citations
A “feminist” is
A researcher finds that women interrupt men fewer times than men interrupt women in mixed-gender groups. The researcher concludes that this indicates that women lack assertiveness. This is an example of
A researcher uses observation as a method to study gender differences in helping behaviors among preschool children. The researcher expects to find more helping behaviors from girls and ends up observing more helping behaviors from girls than boys. This might be an example of ______.
Which of the following is NOT a principle of gender‑fair research?
According to Nancy Chodorow, in her book The Reproduction of Mothering, the devaluation of women is due to
“Maternity is certain and paternity is not.” This statement would most likely be made as part of an argument by
According to sexual strategies theory, men put more of their energy into __________ and women put more of their energy into __________.
In a reanalysis of Buss’s 37 cultures data, Eagly and Wood (1999) found that, supporting social role theory, ______
According to a meta-analysis testing some of Gilligan’s hypotheses about moral reasoning,
According to research on gender and stereotype threat,
According to research on stereotype threat
Meta-analysis is a
According to a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in relational aggression,
In one experiment, deindividuation was used to study the influence of gender roles on gender differences in aggressive behavior. Specifically, participants played a game in which they dropped bombs. In one condition, participants’ behavior was pubic and in another they were told their behavior was anonymous (deindividuation condition). The results showed that there were no significant gender differences in aggression in the
A meta-analysis of gender differences in helping behavior found that
In a study by Mahzarin Banaji and colleagues, researchers measured people’s reaction times to the pairing of male and math compared with female and math. They were measuring ______.
What does an intersectional approach tell us about gender stereotypes?
Why did women of color develop various intersectional feminisms, including womanism, Mujerismo, Chicana feminism, and American Indian feminism?
Racial microaggressions are
A scale originally written in English but then translated into Spanish needs to have the same meaning in both languages. This is an example of ______.
One study of Khmer refugee women living in California found that mothers’ PTSD symptoms were linked to their children’s experiences of anxiety and depression. This evidence suggests that
According to Fiske (1993) “attention is directed up the hierarchy.” This means that
Factors such as feeling pride in one’s identity, recognizing oppression, and developing strong relationships within one’s family and community promote ______.
Pick the correct answer below for FOUR points.
Biernat and Sesko (2018) review research on gender stereotypes and stereotyping. Discuss how gender stereotypes 1) affect memory and 2) create a “double bind” for women. For each include a summary of one study presented (i.e., a total of two studies) that illustrate these concepts.
Gender stereotypes affect our memory in that we tend to remember occurrences that are consistent with our “normal” way of viewing gender roles as compared to the unusual occurrences. This was illustrated by showing pictures of a boy playing with a toy train and a girl sawing to 5-6-year-old children. One week later, the children would remember the boy more than the girl (Biernat, & Sesko, 2018 p. 177). Depending on the situation, women are seen as either fit for a given managerial position. In the case where tough decisions are required women are more preferred to men as they are known to be warm and competent than men. However, in the case where the woman seeks a masculine job, they are not preferred as they are thought to incompetent (Biernat, & Sesko, 2018 p. 178-179). This double judgment of women’s competence is based on social stereotypes on them.
1) According to Glick and Fiske (2001) what is hostile sexism and what is benevolent sexism? 2) As studied across many cultures, what is the relationship between hostile and benevolent sexism? 3) Discuss how benevolent sexism may serve to “justify the status quo.” For each question make sure you use research findings to back up your points.
Benevolent sexism is the ideology that supports women for their act of taking up convectional roles and living in alignment with social stereotypes. On the other hand, hostile sexism is the harsh treatment of women who are believed to have taken up power positions believed to belong to men (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 109). Although a high number of both men and women prefer women quoting their characteristics of warm and nurturing, these only suit women for domestic roles while men are expected to poses traits that are well suit for roles that are dabbed as of high status (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 110). Benevolent sexism serves the purpose of offering men their status quo. It allows the men to maintain to hold high their image as protectors and providers of women. This helps men uphold and justify their power and privileges (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 111). Although easily taken as for the good cause, hostile sexism can exist underneath benevolent sexism.
1) Define and discuss stereotype threat in relationship to gender and math performance. 2) According to Shih, Pittinsky, and Trahan (2006) is stereotype threat domain-specific or do stereotypes operate globally when affecting performance? 3) According to Schmader, Johns, and Barquissau (2004) how does stereotype endorsement play a role in women’s experience in a math domain? Give evidence from research cited in the questions to back up your points when answering each question.
Social stereotypes hold that performance in Mathematics is best for boys. Therefore, when these stereotypes are made salient to females as they take their math test, they tend to perform worse than when stereotypes about their race are emphasized. The effect stereotypes have on the performance of females in mathematics is global and surpasses the effect on racial stereotypes on the same subjects. This is seen by how the effect of gender stereotyping was similar for Asian females and Black American females (Shih, Pittinsky, & Trahan, 2006 p. 1). Studies conducted on the effect of gender stereotypes on women’s self-perception and endorsements revealed that the stereotypes are likely to cause women who have advanced in mathematics to recommend the course to other females. They also are likely to affect their chances of advancing further with their mathematics course (Schmader, Johns, & Barquissau, 2004 p. 835). The stereotypes have major social effects even on the building of confidence in women.
Biernat, Tocci, and Williams (2012) examined performance evaluations of lawyers. What did they find in terms of gender differences (or lack thereof) in numerical (objective) and narrative (subjective) evaluations? How does the shifting standards model explain the differences found between objective and subjective evaluations?
In the modern setting numerical ratings form the basis of most evaluations of performance. However, there are cases where this evaluation is done together with narrative comments and ratings. A study conducted by Biernat, Tocci, & Williams, 2012 (p. 186) established that in numerical ratings that were essential for promotion tended to favor male attorneys, especially when the supervisor was male. To cover this, narrative comments were then offered to ensure that the effect of sex in the evaluations was not visible. Also, narrative comments of competence were often used on men while on women, comments of warmth were common in the Wall Street law firm.
Sesko and Biernat (2010) discuss invisibility as a form of discrimination. 1) What is invisibility (make sure use examples from research findings in this work to illustrate your points), and 2) how does this research relate to Goff, Thomas, and Jackson’s (2008) findings regarding intersections of social categories?
Invisibility is the art of going unnoticed in the public domain. A study conducted revealed that black women were more likely to be forgotten as compared to white women and men and black men. Also, in a group discussion, it was revealed that statements by black women were least remembered (Sesko, & Biernat, 2010 p. 356). Also, a study conducted by Goff, Thomas, & Jackson, 2008 (p. 392), found out that black women are regarded as unattractive and masculine. This followed the presentation of videos of white and black women to an audience and their opinions are taken. This form of racial discrimination largely contributes to black women often going unnoticed in the public domain.