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General instructions: You will have an hour and 15 minutes (75 min.) to complete this exam. Once you have started the clock with start. In other words, it will not save for you. I am expecting that you have spent the normal time preparing for this exam as you would have for an in-class exam.

Multiple choice: You should not treat this as an open book exam as looking up the answers will leave you without enough time to complete it.

Essays: While I am expecting that you have prepared the exam essays ahead of time, you should NOT be quoting from articles. I want to see that you can paraphrase and discuss the research just like you would if this was an in-class exam. This is important. Because you have time to prepare them and will have your notes, they should be well-written and thoughtful. In other words, you can just cut and paste your answers in to the response box. Assume one page hand written is enough to answer each question, or 2-3 paragraphs typed (but no more than 3, and if you can answer it fully in 1 paragraph that is okay too).

Answer the question in a concise manner and make sure you answer all parts of the question. You should clearly be using the articles and research in the articles to answer these questions. In other words, when a question asks you to give examples from research, then you should discuss main methods/findings from that research (i.e., the research cited in the question) to back-up your points. Make sure you clearly answer all parts of the question.

Note: You do not need to include a reference for each article, but do use APA in-text citations

Question 1

/ 2 pts

A “feminist” is

a person who favors more rights for women than for men.

a person who conforms to the traditional role for women.

a person who favors political, economic, and social equality of women and men, and therefore favors the legal and social changes necessary to achieve equality.

pro-choice activists.

Question 2

/ 2 pts

A researcher finds that women interrupt men fewer times than men interrupt women in mixed-gender groups. The researcher concludes that this indicates that women lack assertiveness. This is an example of

an unbiased interpretation.

a female deficit interpretation.

feminist methods.

researcher effects.

Question 3

/ 2 pts

A researcher uses observation as a method to study gender differences in helping behaviors among preschool children. The researcher expects to find more helping behaviors from girls and ends up observing more helping behaviors from girls than boys. This might be an example of ______.

benevolent sexism

an observer effect.

publication bias.

bias in choice of participants.

IncorrectQuestion 4

/ 2 pts

Which of the following is NOT a principle of gender‑fair research?

Both male and female researchers should collect data.

Single gender research should almost never be done.

Interpretations of data should be examined for gender fairness.

More research using women only as participants should be done.

Question 5

/ 2 pts

According to Nancy Chodorow, in her book The Reproduction of Mothering, the devaluation of women is due to

men’s greater muscular strength.


women doing almost all of the childcare.

women being pregnant, which gives men power over them.

Question 6

/ 2 pts

“Maternity is certain and paternity is not.” This statement would most likely be made as part of an argument by

a psychoanalytic theorist.

a social learning theorist.

a sociobiologist.

a feminist theorist.

Question 7

/ 2 pts

According to sexual strategies theory, men put more of their energy into __________ and women put more of their energy into __________.

sex; infant care

sons; daughters

daughters; sons

short-term mating; long-term mating

Question 8

/ 2 pts

In a reanalysis of Buss’s 37 cultures data, Eagly and Wood (1999) found that, supporting social role theory, ______

50% of cultures have greater gender equality than the United States.

cultures with greater gender inequality have larger gender differences in mate preferences.

cultures with greater gender inequality have smaller gender differences in mate preferences.

mate preferences are determined by evolution.

IncorrectQuestion 9

/ 2 pts

According to a meta-analysis testing some of Gilligan’s hypotheses about moral reasoning,

most people use a mixture of justice and care in their thinking about moral issues.

males do use justice reasoning almost exclusively.

females do use care reasoning almost exclusively.

both b and c

IncorrectQuestion 10

/ 2 pts

According to research on gender and stereotype threat,

women perform as well as men on a challenging math test if they are told the test is gender-fair.

when men are told that a math test is gender-fair, they underperform compared with when they are told the test typically shows a gender difference.

men feel threatened by women’s advances in society in the last three decades, as measured by men’s heart rate and blood pressure.

both b and c.

Question 11

/ 2 pts

According to research on stereotype threat

If Asian American women have their ethnic identity primed, they perform better on math problems.

If Asian American women have their gender identity primed, they perform worse on math problems.

If Asian American women have their gender identity primed, their self-esteem decreases.

Both a and b.

Question 12

/ 2 pts

Meta-analysis is a

form of feminist criticism.

statistical technique that allows the researcher to combine evidence from a number of previous studies on a particular question.

a statistical technique that is gender biased.

statistical technique that uses means, not standard deviations.

Question 13

/ 2 pts

According to a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in relational aggression,

girls score higher than boys but the gender difference is small.

girls score higher than boys and the gender difference is large.

boys score higher than girls and the gender difference is large.

there are no gender differences in relational aggression.

Question 14

/ 2 pts

In one experiment, deindividuation was used to study the influence of gender roles on gender differences in aggressive behavior. Specifically, participants played a game in which they dropped bombs. In one condition, participants’ behavior was pubic and in another they were told their behavior was anonymous (deindividuation condition). The results showed that there were no significant gender differences in aggression in the

individuation condition.

individualized instruction condition.

deindividuation condition.

laboratory compared with natural environments.

Question 15

/ 2 pts

A meta-analysis of gender differences in helping behavior found that

females consistently help more.

males consistently help more.

whether males are more likely to help or females are more likely to help depends on the situation (e.g., if it is dangerous or people are watching).

there is no gender difference.

Question 16

/ 2 pts

In a study by Mahzarin Banaji and colleagues, researchers measured people’s reaction times to the pairing of male and math compared with female and math. They were measuring ______.

implicit stereotypes


old-fashioned sexism

gender differences in stress reactivity

Question 17

/ 2 pts

What does an intersectional approach tell us about gender stereotypes?

Gender stereotypes remain fairly similar across ethnic groups.

Gender stereotypes may not be the same in different ethnic groups.

Gender stereotypes have the same impact across ethnic groups.

Gender stereotypes occur for some ethnic groups but not others.

Question 18

/ 2 pts

Why did women of color develop various intersectional feminisms, including womanism, Mujerismo, Chicana feminism, and American Indian feminism?

There was not enough emphasis on gender and spirituality in White feminism.

White feminism did not emphasize the economic needs of women in poverty, only focusing on wealthy women’s issues.

Women of color felt marginalized by White feminism, which focused on White, middle-class women’s issues.

White feminism focused too much on women’s power over men, rather than equality between genders.

Question 19

/ 2 pts

Racial microaggressions are

hate crimes directed at ethnic minorities

rumors started about members of ethnic minorities

subtle insults directed at people of color and that can be done consciously or nonconsciously.

both a and b

IncorrectQuestion 20

/ 2 pts

A scale originally written in English but then translated into Spanish needs to have the same meaning in both languages. This is an example of ______.

conceptual equivalence

the language barrier

translational difference

translational equivalence

Question 21

/ 2 pts

One study of Khmer refugee women living in California found that mothers’ PTSD symptoms were linked to their children’s experiences of anxiety and depression. This evidence suggests that

these families had almost no resilience factors to combat the trauma.

trauma can be transmitted intergenerationally and may take generations to overcome.

trauma is inevitably passed down to children who then struggle the rest of their lives.

trauma impacted the children more than the parents

IncorrectQuestion 22

/ 2 pts

According to Fiske (1993) “attention is directed up the hierarchy.” This means that

people with low or no power are more likely to stereotype those with power over them.

people with high power are more likely to stereotype those they hold power over.

people attend to the stereotypes of the powerful.

people with low power are individuated.

Question 23

/ 2 pts

Factors such as feeling pride in one’s identity, recognizing oppression, and developing strong relationships within one’s family and community promote ______.


ethnic group labels



Question 24

/ 4 pts

Pick the correct answer below for FOUR points.

Pick me, I am correct.

Don’t pick me, I am wrong.

Question 25

/ 10 pts

Biernat and Sesko (2018) review research on gender stereotypes and stereotyping. Discuss how gender stereotypes 1) affect memory and 2) create a “double bind” for women. For each include a summary of one study presented (i.e., a total of two studies) that illustrate these concepts.

Your Answer:

Gender stereotypes affect our memory in that we tend to remember occurrences that are consistent with our “normal” way of viewing gender roles as compared to the unusual occurrences. This was illustrated by showing pictures of a boy playing with a toy train and a girl sawing to 5-6-year-old children. One week later, the children would remember the boy more than the girl (Biernat, & Sesko, 2018 p. 177). Depending on the situation, women are seen as either fit for a given managerial position. In the case where tough decisions are required women are more preferred to men as they are known to be warm and competent than men. However, in the case where the woman seeks a masculine job, they are not preferred as they are thought to incompetent (Biernat, & Sesko, 2018 p. 178-179). This double judgment of women’s competence is based on social stereotypes on them.

Biernat and Sesko (2018) did not conduct this work though so cite studies that did. No page numbers unless direct quote (see APA) –what research supports the double-bind then? Bring in a specific study (e.g., the promotion one). You are bringing in research but it is not clear that you are backing up with the double-bind is here.

Question 26

/ 10 pts

1) According to Glick and Fiske (2001) what is hostile sexism and what is benevolent sexism? 2) As studied across many cultures, what is the relationship between hostile and benevolent sexism? 3) Discuss how benevolent sexism may serve to “justify the status quo.” For each question make sure you use research findings to back up your points.

Your Answer:

Benevolent sexism is the ideology that supports women for their act of taking up convectional roles and living in alignment with social stereotypes. On the other hand, hostile sexism is the harsh treatment of women who are believed to have taken up power positions believed to belong to men (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 109). Although a high number of both men and women prefer women quoting their characteristics of warm and nurturing, these only suit women for domestic roles while men are expected to poses traits that are well suit for roles that are dabbed as of high status (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 110). Benevolent sexism serves the purpose of offering men their status quo. It allows the men to maintain to hold high their image as protectors and providers of women. This helps men uphold and justify their power and privileges (Glick, & Fiske, 2001 p. 111). Although easily taken as for the good cause, hostile sexism can exist underneath benevolent sexism.

–what is the relationship? It is strong positive correlation–make this clear.

Question 27

/ 10 pts

1) Define and discuss stereotype threat in relationship to gender and math performance. 2) According to Shih, Pittinsky, and Trahan (2006) is stereotype threat domain-specific or do stereotypes operate globally when affecting performance? 3) According to Schmader, Johns, and Barquissau (2004) how does stereotype endorsement play a role in women’s experience in a math domain?  Give evidence from research cited in the questions to back up your points when answering each question.

Your Answer:

Social stereotypes hold that performance in Mathematics is best for boys. Therefore, when these stereotypes are made salient to females as they take their math test, they tend to perform worse than when stereotypes about their race are emphasized. The effect stereotypes have on the performance of females in mathematics is global and surpasses the effect on racial stereotypes on the same subjects. This is seen by how the effect of gender stereotyping was similar for Asian females and Black American females (Shih, Pittinsky, & Trahan, 2006 p. 1). Studies conducted on the effect of gender stereotypes on women’s self-perception and endorsements revealed that the stereotypes are likely to cause women who have advanced in mathematics to recommend the course to other females. They also are likely to affect their chances of advancing further with their mathematics course (Schmader, Johns, & Barquissau, 2004 p. 835). The stereotypes have major social effects even on the building of confidence in women.

They were testing if it was domain-specific and found that it was (verbal vs. math changed effect)

Question 28

/ 10 pts

Biernat, Tocci, and Williams (2012) examined performance evaluations of lawyers. What did they find in terms of gender differences (or lack thereof) in numerical (objective) and narrative (subjective) evaluations? How does the shifting standards model explain the differences found between objective and subjective evaluations?

Your Answer:

In the modern setting numerical ratings form the basis of most evaluations of performance. However, there are cases where this evaluation is done together with narrative comments and ratings. A study conducted by Biernat, Tocci, & Williams, 2012 (p. 186) established that in numerical ratings that were essential for promotion tended to favor male attorneys, especially when the supervisor was male. To cover this, narrative comments were then offered to ensure that the effect of sex in the evaluations was not visible. Also, narrative comments of competence were often used on men while on women, comments of warmth were common in the Wall Street law firm.

Narratives were not necessarily to cover it up (there is not direct evidence of this)…shifting standards is likely at play here. Be a bit more specific on what wad done and found. Also the shifting standards part is mostly missing here.

Question 29

10 / 10 pts

Sesko and Biernat (2010) discuss invisibility as a form of discrimination. 1) What is invisibility (make sure use examples from research findings in this work to illustrate your points), and 2) how does this research relate to Goff, Thomas, and Jackson’s (2008) findings regarding intersections of social categories?

Your Answer:

Invisibility is the art of going unnoticed in the public domain. A study conducted revealed that black women were more likely to be forgotten as compared to white women and men and black men. Also, in a group discussion, it was revealed that statements by black women were least remembered (Sesko, & Biernat, 2010 p. 356). Also, a study conducted by Goff, Thomas, & Jackson, 2008 (p. 392), found out that black women are regarded as unattractive and masculine. This followed the presentation of videos of white and black women to an audience and their opinions are taken. This form of racial discrimination largely contributes to black women often going unnoticed in the public domain.

Quiz Score: 82 out of 100

This quiz score has been manually adjusted by +6.0 points.